Objects

All animate and inanimate entities, both natural and supernatural

Creatures

All the natural animate entities, such as humans and animals

Animals

This lexical domain consists of all living creatures, with the exception of human beings.

Wild Animals

Wild animals of the larger variety, sometimes referred to in Hebrew as חַיָּה (Gen. 7:21) or חַיַּת הַשָׂדֶה. According to the taxonomy that surfaces in the Old Testament (see Lev. 11:29) smaller wild animals, such as the mouse or the weasel, are to be co

Domestic Animals

All domesticated animals, often referred to by the Hebrew generic term בְּהֵמָה (Gen. 7:21). Even though this term is occasionally used to indicate animals in a wider sense of the word it usually refers to domestic animals only.

Small Animals

This category consists of small land animals covered by the generic term רֶמֶשׂ. According to Genesis 1:24 this is a category in itself. It does somewhat overlap with שֶׁרֶץ, however. Leviticus 11:29 refers to (part of) this subcategory of animals as שֶׁר

Aquatic Animals

This category consists of all water creatures except what is considered שֶׁרֶץ הַמַּיִם (see Swarming Creatures). See Leviticus 11:9-12; Deuteronomy 14:9,10

Birds

All birds, covered by the Hebrew generic term עוֹף. Flying insects are part of the category Swarming Creatures.

Swarming Creatures

All animals covered by the generic term שֶׁרֶץ, with the exception of the reptiles and small rodents that are classified as רֶמֶשׂ Small Animals. This comprises what is referred to as שֶׁרֶץ הָעוֹף (Lev. 11:20), שֶׁרֶץ הַמַּיִם (Lev. 11:10), and probabl

People

This lexical domain covers all human beings.

Classes

Social classes, such as slave, free, alien, rich, poor, etc.

Communities

All terms referring to large groups of people, e.g. nation, tribe, clan, e.g. עַם

Vocation

All people with a certain profession, such as farmers, shepherd, craftsmen, etc.

Enemies

People that one considers one's enemies, opponents, adversaries, etc., e.g. אֹיֵב

Friends

People that one considers one's friends, companions, partners, etc., e.g. חָבֵר

Groups

Kinship

Kinship terms, such as father, mother, etc., e.g. אָב, אֵם

Leaders

Kings and other leaders, e.g. מֶלֶךְ

Officials

Officials in the service of a king or other leader, e.g. שַׂר

Priests

Priests and other religious offices, e.g. כֹּהֵן

Prophets

Seer and prophets, e.g. נָבִיא

Prostitutes

Adulterers and prostitutes, both male and female

Soldiers

All people involved in military activities, e.g. גִּבּוֹר

Deities

All supernatural beings.

Parts

All objects that cannot exist in isolation but are an integral part of another object and therefore usually occur as part of an associative construction (branch of a tree, wing of a dove, etc.), or require a possessive pronoun (my hand, her head, etc.).

Vegetation

This lexical domain covers all plants and trees, covered by Hebrew generic term דֶשֶׁא according to Genesis 1:11.

Plants

All plants, covered by the Hebrew generic term עֵשֶׂב

Trees

All trees, covered by the Hebrew generic term עֵץ

Products

This lexical domain covers all inanimate objects, usually of a relatively small size, produced by people, deities, animals, or plants. An important characteristic of this category is that this type of objects can be actively used as instruments in other p

Artifacts

All human-made objects, covered by the Hebrew generic term כְּלִי.

Saddles

All artifacts that serve as seats for people riding animals.

Wells and Cisterns

All terms for constructions made by humans to draw water from the ground or store rain water

Clothing

All terms referring to clothing and armor

Containers

All objects produced to contain other objects such as liquids or dry substances

Cords

Objects such as cords, chains, fetters and similar objects

Furnishings

All objects used to furnish and decorate the inside of buildings.

Gemstones

All precious stones

Images

All terms referring to images of objects, usually idols, e.g. פֶּסֶל

Jewellery

All jewellery, such as rings, necklaces, etc.

Headgear

All headgear, such as turbans, crowns, veils, etc.

Music

All musical instruments

Scrolls

Scrolls, tablets, seals, and all other writing equipment

Ships

All vehicles used for transportation over water.

Tools

All artifacts used by craftsmen to produce other artifacts.

Traps

All instruments used for hunting and fishing, of which פַּח may be a prototype. These objects are often used in a metaphorical sense to denote devices used by evil people to ensnare others.

Vehicles

All vehicles used for transportation over land

Weapons

All artifacts used in warfare

Body Products

All body products, such as excrement, sweat, blood, etc.

Food

All terms for food items. It must be noted that many food items can be regarded as substances as well. Honey, for instance, is both a food product and a substance. That fact that it is a substance, however, seems to be less relevant than its membership of

Crops

All crops growing as plants, such as grain, wheat, barley, flax, etc.; e.g. דָּגָן

Dairy

All food produced by animals, such as dairy products, but also eggs and honey; e.g. חָלָב

Fruits

All fruits; e.g. פְּרִי

Meat

Wine

Wine and related drinks, such as vinegar and liquor; e.g. יַיִן

Scenery

This lexical domain covers all inanimate objects, with the exception of plants, that usually cannot be moved, and are part of the scenery in which events in the Old Testament take place, like mountains, rivers, population centers, constructions, etc.

Constructions

All constructions, such as huts, shelters, houses, fortresses, and palaces; e.g. בַּיִת

Buildings

All permanent constructions where people live, e.g. בַּיִת

Fortifications

All constructions that serve as fortifications

Monuments

Stalls

All constructions where domestic animals are kept, e.g. מִכְלָא

Tents

All temporary constructions, such as tents, shelters, etc.

Tombs

All terms referring to burial places, e.g. קֶבֶר

Towns

All population centers, such as villages and towns; e.g. עִיר

Depressions

All depressions, such as holes, gorges, and valleys

Elevations

All elevations and land formations, such as height, hills, rocks, and mountains; e.g. הַר

Land

All terms referring to land; e.g. אֶרֶץ

Roads

All terms referring to roads, paths, streets, e.g. דֶּרֶךְ

Universe

Heaven and earth and all that is in it, שָׁמַיִם

Water

All bodies of water, such as seas, lakes, rivers, pools; e.g. יָם

Substances

All inanimate objects that are shaped in such a way that they usually cannot be counted but are to be measured instead, and from which other objects can be produced, e.g. gold, silver, wood, clay, etc. This category includes liquids like water, and elemen

Cloth

Cloth and substances used for making clothes, such as פֵּשֶׁת linen and צֶמֶר woolâ

Fire

Terms such as fire, spark, flame, etc.; e.g. אֵשׁ

Liquids

All liquids

Metal

All metals, ranging from iron to gold

Paint

Substances used to color other objects.

Rain

All forms of precipitation, such as rain, hail, snow

Sand

Terms such as dust, sand, clay, mud

Spices

Substances such as fragrant spices, powders, and ointments used for culinary, medicinal, and cosmetic purposes

Stone

All types of אֶבֶן; includes rocks, cliffs, etc. for precious stones, see: Gemstones

Wind

Meteorological phenomena such as wind, whirlwind, storm, etc.

Events

All states, processes, actions, and causative actions, featuring one or more objects or other events. States and Processes overlap in biblical Hebrew and are therefore considered one single category in SDBH (State/Process). Terms that are often labeled ab

Description

Events that describe features of objects or other events. This includes certain adjectives and adverbs, words that according to Nida's analysis usually classify as abstracts rather than events. In biblical Hebrew, however, the distinction between events a

Attribute

Events describing the physical features of an object.

Alive

Events involving the attribute of being alive or not; opposite: Dead

Bad

Events denoting good quality; opposite: Good

Beautiful

Events involving physical beauty; opposite: Ugly

Burn

Events involving fire, e.g. בער

Capacity

Units of capacity, including both dry and liquid measures.

Clean

opposite Unclean

Close

Events involving the attribute of not having an opening allowing entrance, passage, or access, or where that opening has been blocked; opposite: Open; e.g. סגר

Cold

Events involving the attribute of having a relatively low temperature; opposite: Hot

Color

Events involving the attribute of having a particular color, e.g.

Damage

Events involving the attribute of being damaged or destroyed; opposite: Intact

Dead

Events involving the attribute of being dead; opposite: Alive

Dimension

Events involving the dimensions of objects, such as length, width, height, depth, etc.

Dry

Events denoting the absence of water or moisture; opposite: Wet

Ingest

Events involving the process of animate beings taking in food and drink, e.g. אכל; opposite: Excrete

Excrete

Events involving the excretion of body products, e.g. spitting, urinating, sweating, vomiting, etc.

Fat

opposite: Thin

Good

Events denoting good quality; opposite: Bad

Handicap

Events involving the attribute of being physically challenged by a handicap.

Heavy

Events involving the attribute of having a relatively great weight, e.g. כבד; opposite: Light.

Hot

Events involving the attribute of having a relatively high temperature; opposite: Cold

High

opposite: Low

Intact

Events involving the attribute of being intact, without damage; opposite: Damage

Large

Events denoting the relatively small large size of objects; opposite: Little

Light

קלל; opposite: Heavy

Little

Events denoting the relatively small size of objects; opposite: Large

Low

opposite: High

Old

Events denoting relatively old age, e.g. זָקֵן; opposite: Young

Open

Events involving the attribute of having an opening allowing entrance, passage, or access, e.g. פתח; opposite of Close.

Quantity

Events involving the quantity of objects, e.g. numerals

Shake

Events involving movement of objects that do not result in a change in location, such as trembling, shaking, etc.

Shape

Events involving the shape of objects

Shine

Events involving objects producing or reflecting light

Sick

Events involving the attribute of suffering from some sort of sickness

Soft

Events involving the attribute of being malleable, yielding to pressure; opposite: Solid.

Solid

Events involving the attribute of being firm, unyielding to pressure; opposite: Soft.

Spasm

Events involving contractions of the muscles, such as the contractions that accompany the birth of a child.

Stage

Events describing the stage of growth of an object; applies to plants, animals, and human beings

Stance

Events involving stances of the body of humans and animals

Strong

Events denoting physical strength; opposite: Weak

Thin

opposite: Fat

Ugly

opposite: Beautiful

Unclean

opposite: Clean

Weak

Events denoting the absence of physical strength; opposite: Strong

Weight

units of weight

Wet

Events denoting the presence of water or moisture; opposite: Dry

Wounds

Events involving physical damage of the body of humans and animals

Young

Events denoting that an object is relatively young; opposite: Old

Attitude

Events describing non-physical features of (usually animate) objects, such as attitudes and emotions.

Accept

Events describing an animate object's willingness to associate or be involved with another object or event, e.g. אבה; opposite: Refuse

Afraid

Events describing emotions of fear, e.g. ירא

Angry

Events describing an emotion of anger or displeasure, e.g. אַף; opposite: Patient

Confident

Events describing feelings of confidence and lack of fear

Cruel

Events describing a lack of compassion towards other animate or sometimes even inanimate beings, e.g. אַכְזָרִי; opposite: Merciful

Despise

Events denoting a lack of respect for someone else, e.g. בזה; opposite: Respect

Diligent

Events denoting a willingness to work hard, e.g. חָרוּץ; opposite: Lazy

Distress

צָרָה

Evil

רשׁע; opposite: Just

Faithful

חֶסֶד

Ferocious

Events describing an inclination for violence; opposite: Meek

Generous

Great

Events describing the greatness of people and/or supernatural beings; opposite: Small

Grief

Events describing an emotion of grief or sadness; opposite: Joy

Hate

שׂנא; opposite: Love

Hope

קוה

Humble

Events describing an attitude of humility towards other objects, e.g. עָנָו; opposite: Proud

Joy

Events describing an emotion of joy or gladness; e.g. גיל; opposite: Grief

Just

צדק; opposite: Evil

Lazy

עָצֵל; opposite: Diligent

Love

Events involving the attitude of affection, e.g. אהב; opposite: Hate

Meek

Events describing a total lack of inclination to violence, e.g. עָנָו; opposite: Ferocious

Merciful

Events describing the attitude of compassion, e.g. חנן; opposite: Cruel

Patient

Events describing the attitude of patience, e.g. אֶרֶךְ אַפַּיִם; opposite: Angry

Prepared

Events describing the extent to which someone is prepared or ready to undertake something.

Proud

Events describing an attitude of pride and superiority, e.g. גאה; opposite: Humble

Refuse

Events describing an animate object's refusal to associate or be involved with another object or event; opposite: Accept

Respect

כבד; opposite: Despise

Satisfaction

שׁבע

Secure

Events describing an attitude of feeling secure and safe, having nothing to be afraid of, e.g. שׁקט

Shame

Events describing an emotion of shame or a state of feeling let down by another object, such as a human being or deity, e.g. בושׁ; opposite: Trust

Small

Events denoting the relative insignificance of certain people and/or supernatural beings; opposite: Great

Trust

Events describing an attitude of confidence in another object, such as a human being or deity, e.g. בטח; opposite: Shame

Valuable

Worthless

Zeal

Modification

Events describing the features of events.

Abundant

opposite: Scarce

Appropriate

Events stating to what extent another event is appropriate, suitable, fitting, etc.

Change

Conspicuous

Events stating to what extent another event is performed in a conspicuous way

Dark

opposite: Light

Ephemeral

False

opposite: True; e.g. שֶׁקֶר

Frequency

Events describing the frequency with which an event occurs.

Frost

Events describing a low temperature of the atmosphere; e.g. קֶרַח opposite: Heat

Hard

Events stating to what extent another event is to be qualified as hardship

Heat

Events describing a high temperature of the atmosphere, e.g. חֹרֶב; opposite: Frost

Important

Events describing the importance of other events

Intense

Events describing the intensity or force with which other events take place, e.g. חזק; opposite: Lax

Lax

Events describing the lack of intensity or force with which other events take place, e.g. ; opposite: Intense

Light

opposite: Dark

Permanent

Right

Events describing the extent to which a particular event is morally and/or ethically right; opposite: Wrong; e.g. טוֹב

Scarce

opposite: Abundant

Speed

Events describing the speed with which an event is performed

True

opposite: False; e.g. אÖ±מֶת

Well

Wrong

Events describing the extent to which a particular event is morally and/or ethically wrong; opposite: Right; e.g. רַע

Position

Events describing relations between objects and events and the environment in which they are located or occur.

Location

Events describing relations between objects and the physical environment in which they are located.

Dwell

to make one's temporary or permanent abode in a certain location, e.g. שׁכן

Flee

(2) to go to another location to save one's life (Action)

Hide

(1) to be in a certain location with the purpose not to be seen by certain people (State/Process); (2) to go to a certain location with the purpose not to be seen by certain people (Action), and (3) to put another object certain location for this same pur

Move

(1) to move from one location to another (State/Process), (2) to go from one location to another (Action), or (3) to bring an object from one location to another (Causative), e.g. הלךְ

Search

to try to find out the location of an object, e.g. בקשׁ

Space

(1) to be in a certain location (State/Process), (2) to take position in a certain location (Action), or (3) to put an object in a certain location (Causative), e.g. עמד

Non-Move

(1) to be still, without movement, (2) to keep still, without movement, or (3) to keep something or someone from moving

Non-Space

(1) to not be in a certain location (State/Process), (2) to disappear from a certain location (Action), or (3) to cause an object to disappear from a certain location (Causative), e.g. אַיִן

Pasture

to be at a certain location or move from one location to another with domesticated animals to provide food and shelter for them, e.g. רעה

Pursue

e.g. רדף

Existence

Events describing relations between objects and the non-physical environment (existence, time, etc.) in which they are located.

Act

This lexical domain contains lexicalized metaphors regarding life as a journey; (2) to behave in a certain way, and (3) to cause to behave in a certain way

Birth

Events describing the coming in existence of humans and animals by way of birth; (1) to be born (State/Process), (2) to give birth (Causative), e.g. ילד

Exist

Events describing the coming in existence of objects by way of creation or manufacturing; (1) to be produced or brought forth (State/Process), (2) to produce or bring forth an object (Action), or (3) to cause an object to be produced or brought

Non-Exist

Events describing the removal of objects from existence; (1) to be removed from existence (State/Process), (2) to remove oneself from existence (Action), or (3) to remove another object from existence (Causative), e.g. אבד, שׁמד

Time

Events describing existence in time rather than in space, e.g. עֵת

Festivals

Events describing fixed times for religious festivals and other special occasions, e.g. מוֹעֵד

Occurrence

Events describing relations between other events and the environment in which they occur.

Happen

(1) to happen (State/Process), (2) to perform an event (Action), or (3) to cause something to happen (Causative), e.g. היה, עשׂה

Non-Happen

(1) to not happen (State/Process), (2) to refrain from performing an event, or (3) to keep something from happen (Causative)

Connection

Attachment

Events describing relations of physical attachment between objects.

Attach

(1) to be attached to another object (State/Process), (2) to attach oneself to another object (Action), or to tie one object to another, e.g.חבר; opposite: Detach

Beat

Bind

(1) to be bound (with a rope or in chains) (State/Process), (2) to bind oneself (Action), or (3) to bind someone or something else (Causative), e.g. אסר

Carry

(1) to carry an object (State/Process), (2) to pick up an object (Action), or (3) to cause someone else to carry an object, e.g. נשׂה

Cover

(1) to be covered by something (State/Process), (2) to cover oneself (Action), and (3) to cover something else (Causative); for covering oneself with clothes or armor, see: Dress

Dress

(1) to wear clothes or armor (State/Process), (2) to put on clothes or armor (Action), or (3) or to dress or arm someone else, e.g. חגר; opposite: Strip

Detach

(1) to be detached from another object (State/Process), (2) to detach oneself from another object (Action), or (3) to detach one object from another; opposite: Attach

Embrace

(1) to lie in someone's arms (State/Process, (2) to hold someone in one's arms (Action), e.g. חבק

Fight

(1) to wrestle or fight with someone (Action)

Grasp

(1) to hold an object in one's hand (State/Process), (2) to take hold of an object with one's hand (Action), or (3) to cause someone else to hold an object in his/her hand (Causative), e.g. אחז

Mix

(1) to be mixed with other objects, (2) to mix oneself with other objects, and (3) to mix one object with other objects

Strip

(1) to be naked (State/Process), (2) to take of one's clothes (Action), or (3) to strip someone else (Causative), e.g. פשׁט; opposite: Dress

Uncover

(1) to becone uncovered (State/Process), (2) to uncover oneself (Action), and (3) to uncover something else (Causative); for taking off one's clothes or armor, see: Strip

Association

Events describing relationships of non-physical attachment between objects (e.g. possession, acquaintance).

Apart

(1) to be apart from other, related objects (State/Process), (2) to separate oneself from other, related objects (Action), and (3) to set an object apart from other, related objects, e.g. קדשׁ

Associate

(1) to be in league with an individual or group for a common purpose (State/Process), (2) to join oneself to an individual or group for a common purpose, and (3) to bring to individuals or groups together for a common purpose, e.g. בְּרִית

Chastise

Control

(1) to have control over someone else (State/Process), (2) to put oneself in control of someone else (Action), and (3) to put someone else in control of someone (Causative).

Forsake

(1) to disassociate oneself from something (Action)

Free

(1) to be free (State/Process), (2) to free oneself (Action), and (3) to free someone else (Causative); this category differs from Rebel in that the former has a sense of legality which the latter does not.

Gather

Events involving both animate and inanimate objects being brought together in one location, e.g. (1) to be gathered together in one place (State/Process), (2) to come together (Action), or (3) to bring together (Causative), e.g. אסף; opposite: Scatter

Help

(1) to be a helper to someone or to support someone (State/Process), (2) to help someone (Action), or (3) to cause someone to help someone else, e.g. עזר

Meet

Events describing objects that meet each other while moving from one place to another; (1) to meet another object (unintentionally, State/Process), (2) to go to meet another object (intentionally, Action), and (3) to cause two objects to meet each other (

Non-Possess

(1) to be not in possession or lose possession of an object (State/Process); (2) to dispose of an object that one possesses (Action); (3) to cause someone else to lose possession of an object (Causative)

Oppress

Events describing how people mistreat and oppress one another

Possess

(1) to be in possession or gain possession of an object (State/Process); (2) to take possession of an object (Action); (3) to give someone else possession of an object (Causative).

Press

(1) to be pressed down, (2) to press oneself against another object, and (3) to press two objects together

Rebel

(1) to live in a state of not submitting to someone else's authority (State/Process), (2) to remove oneself from under someone else's authority (Action), or (3) to remove someone else from another party's authority (Causative); e.g. מרד; opposite Submit

Sacrifice

(2) to present an offering to a deity (Action)

Scatter

(1) to be scattered (State/Process), (2) to scatter (oneselves), and (3) to cause other people to scatter (Causative), e.g. פוץ; opposite: Gather

Serve

Events describing humans serving deities or other humans

Submit

(1) to be under someone else's authority (State/Process), (2) to place oneself under someone else's authority (Action), (3) or to put someone else under your (or another party's) authority (Causative); opposite Rebel

Involvement

Events describing relationships between objects and events (e.g. involvement, commitment).

Attain

(1) to be in or attain a certain state or position (State/Process), (2) to procure a certain state of position for oneself (Action), and (3) to grant a certain state or position to someone else (Causative); some of the events of this category can be consi

Affect

(1) to affect someone (of events; State/Process), and (3) to cause an event to affect someone else (Causative)

Bear

(1) to bear the responsibility an event (State/Process), (2) to take the responsibility for an event upon oneself (Action), or (3) to put the responsibility of an event upon someone else (Causative).

Fail

All events denoting that another event has not been performed successfully; opposite: Succeed.

Forfeit

(1) to lose a state or position (State/Process), (2) to cause onself to lose a state or position (Action), and (3) to cause someone else to lose a state or position; opposite: Attain

Must

(1) to be obligated to perform an event (State/Process), (2) to obligate oneself to perform an event, and (3) to obligate someone else to perform an event (Causative)

Sin

(1) to live in a state of guilt (State/Process), (2) to be involved in morally or ethically unjust activities (Action), or (3) to lead other people astray (Causative)

Safe

(1) to be free from hardship (State/Process); (2) to protect or save oneself from hardship (Action), or (3) to protect or save someone else from hardship

Succeed

All events denoting that an event has been performed successfully; opposite: Fail.

Urge

(1) to feel pressurized to perform an event, (2) to urge oneself to perform an event, and (3) to urge someone else to perform and event

Perception

Events describing relations between objects and events and the mind of animate beings.

Sensation

Events describing the physical aspects of the relationship between objects and events and the mind of animate beings (e.g. seeing, hearing, smelling, feeling, etc.).

Feel

Events describing the physical aspects of the relationship

Desire

(1) to experience a physical desire

Hunger

(1) to feel hungry (State/Process)

Thirst

(1) to feel thirst (State/Process); prototype: צמ

Touch

(1) to feel (State/Process), (2) to touch (Action), (3) to cause to feel (Causative), משׁש

Hear

(1) to hear (State/Process), (2) to listen (Action), or (3) to cause to hear (Causative), e.g. שׁמע

See

(1) to see (State/Process), (2) to look (Action), or (3) to cause to see, show (Causative), e.g. ראה

Smell

(1) to smell (State/Process), (2) to sniff (Action), (3) to cause to smell (Causative), e.g. באשׁ

Taste

(1) to taste (while eating or drinking = State/Process), (2) to taste (on purpose = Action), or (3) to cause to taste (Causative)

Utter

to utter sounds

Ask

e.g. שׁא

Complain

e.g. לו

Curse

; opposite Prais

Groan

e.g. אנח

Lament

Shout

Sounds

Speak

(1) to speak (Action), or (2) to cause to speak (Causative), e.g. אמר

Praise

הלל; opposite Curs

Vow

Cognition

Events describing the non-physical aspects of the relationship between objects and events and the mind of animate beings (e.g. knowing, thinking, remembering, etc.).

Sense

Events describing inner feelings of people

Wish

(1) to long for something to happen (State/Process

Conscience

(1) to speak (in one's heart, Action)

Foolish

Events denoting people's lack of skills, intelligence, or wisdom; opposite: Wise

Forget

Events dealing with the absence of information in the brain; (1) to be ignorant, forget (State/Process); (2) to force oneself to forget (Action); (3) to cause to forget (Causative), e.g. שׁכח; opposite: Know

Ignore

Events describing the brain's failure to process information; (2) to put far away the tought of something (Action); opposite: Think

Know

Events dealing with information stored in the brain; (1) to know, learn, remember (State/Process); (2) to study (Action); (3) to teach (Causative), e.g. ידע; opposite Forget

Test

Think

Events describing the processing of information by the brain; (2) to think (Action); opposite: Ignore

Wise

Events denoting people's skill, intelligence, or wisdom; opposite: Foolish

Relationals

All lexical units that link, point to, or substitute for objects and events.

Object Relations

Relationals that function as links between objects, e.g. וְ, עִם (Josh. 10:7), אִך (GEN.44:8).

Event Relations

Relationals that function as links between objects and events

Orientation

Orientation

Attachment: Relationals that describe the location of part of object with reference to another part of it

Orientation

Location: Relationals that describe the location of an object with reference to another location

Orientation

Group: Relationals that describe the group membership of an (animate) object with reference to another group

Linkers

Event - Object Linkers

Event - Event Linkers

Relations of Attribute

Relationals that function as links between events belonging to the lexical domain of Attribute and objects that function as semantic arguments of those events, e.g. כְּ (GEN.13:10)

Relations of Attitude

Relationals that function as links between events belonging to the lexical domain of Attitude and objects that function as semantic arguments of those events, e.g. כְּ (GEN.3:22)

Relations of Modification

Relationals that function as links between events belonging to the lexical domain of Modification and events that function as semantic arguments of those events, e.g. כְּ (GEN.18:5)

Relations of Location

Relationals that function as links between events belonging to the lexical domain of Location and objects that function as semantic arguments of those events, e.g. בְּ (GEN.1:14)

Relations of Existence

Relationals that function as links between events belonging to the lexical domain of Existence and objects that function as semantic arguments of those events, e.g. בְּ (PSA.1:1)

Relations of Occurrence

Relationals that function as links between events belonging to the lexical domain of Occurrence and events that function as semantic arguments of those events, e.g. בְּ (EXO.12:13)

Relations of Attachment

Relationals that function as links between events belonging to the lexical domain of Attachment and objects that function as semantic arguments of those events, e.g. מִן (1SA.17:51)

Relations of Association

Relationals that function as links between events belonging to the lexical domain of Association and objects that function as semantic arguments of those events, e.g. מִן (1KI.7:14)

Relations of Involvement

Relationals that function as links between events belonging to the lexical domain of Involvement and other events that function as semantic arguments of those events, e.g. מִן (2CH.16:5)

Relations of Sensation

Relationals that function as links between events belonging to the lexical domain of Sensation and objects that function as semantic arguments of those events, e.g. כִּי (GEN.39:15)

Relations of Cognition

Relationals that function as links between events belonging to the lexical domain of Cognition and objects that function as semantic arguments of those events, e.g. כִּי (GEN.16:4; 1SA.11:13)

Markers

Relationals that are used to highlight or put the focus on a particular object or event, e.g. הִנֵּה (GEN.12:19), אַךְ (GEN.7:23), גַּם (GEN.3:6)

Identifiers

Relationals that put the focus on a particular object or event, e.g. הִנֵּה see, including definite articles and demonstratives

Extenders

Relationals indicating that than object or event has been added to the range of objects/events in focus, e.g. גַּם also

Negators

Relationals that negate an event, e.g. לֹא

Probability

Relationals that focus on the probability that and event will happen, e.g. אוּלַי perhaps, אַךְ surely

Restrictors

Relationals indicating that an object or event is the only object/event in focus, e.g. אַךְ

Object Referents

Relationals that substitute for and refer to a particular object.

Names of Constructions

All names of constructions, such as towers, gates, etc.

Names of Groups

All names of ethnic groups, communities, etc.

Names of People

All names of individuals

Names of Languages

All names of languages

Names of Locations

All names of towns, villages, and other population centers

Names of Geographical Objects

All names of geographical objects, such as bodies of water, mountains, valleys, regions, etc.

Names of Supernatural Beings

All names of deities and other supernatural beings

Names of Times

All names of periods of time, especially months.

Titles

All titles and other ways to address people and deities while not using their names

Referentials

All Relationals referring to non-specific objects

Participant Referents

All Relationals referring to participants in a discourse (I, me, you, he, she, it …)

Event Referents

Relationals that substitute for and refer to a particular event; e.g. כֵּן

Referents of Time

All Relationals substituting for expressions of time

Referents of Location

All Relationals substituting for expressions of location, e.g. שָׁם there, and אַיֵּה [a] where?

Referents of Existence

All Relationals substituting for expressions involving the question whether a particular object exists at all, e.g. אַיֵּה [b]

Referents of Occurrence

All Relationals substituting for expressions involving the question whether a particular event happens at all, e.g. אַיֵּה [c]